Japan Exkursion 2016

Japan Exkursion 22.03.-10.04.2016 (book) A. Faller, W.E. Lorenz (Hrg.). Mit Beiträgen der Teilnehmer der Exkursion nach "japan" (2016).
ISBN: 978-3-9504464-0-1

Das Buch beschreibt in einzelnen Kapiteln die vom Institut Architektur-wissenschaften, Digitale Architektur und Raumplanung, organisierte Exkursion nach Japan aus dem Jahr 2016. ...

bricks are landing

algorithmic design of bricks pavilion. (kleines Entwerfen)

W Lorenz, S. Swoboda, G. Wurzer. In Fortsetzung des kleinen Entwerfens "flying bricks" (WS 2014), bei dem der Einsatz von Sichtziegel im digitalen Fassadenentwurf im Zentrum stand, soll nun die algorithmische Formfindung und/oder Optimierung an Hand eines freistehenden Pavillons untersucht werden. ...

Fractal Aesthetics in Architecture

Journal paper, in Applied Mathematics & Information Sciences. (article)

Wolfgang E. Lorenz, Jan Andres und Georg Franck. This paper deals with fractal aesthetics and proposes a new fractal analysis method for the perceptual study of architecture. The authors believe in the universality of formulas and aim to complement the architectural description in terms of proportion. ...

 

Workshop: Structuring of Teaching and Learning Situations in Architectural Education

Proceeding (workshop): eCAADe (Rome, Italy, 2017)

M. Kulcke, W Lorenz, G. Wurzer
{wurzer|lorenz}@iemar.tuwien.ac.at
www.iemar.tuwien.ac.at/
Vienna; Austria

Keywords: Gradient Analysis, architectural quality.

September, 2017, Vienna

Abstract.

The paper describes and discusses the possible integration of gradient analysis into the learning environment, as a tool to optimize design-objects in regards to their proportion-complexity. To create a responsive system to be used within a design- or learning process the gradient analysis has been integrated in an interactive genetic algorithm (IGA). Within the IGA it serves to determine the fitness value of a given object evaluating the degree of proportion complexity and to create variations with an optimized degree of proportion complexity.

Contrasting Publications in Design and Scientific Research

Talk and Proceeding: eCAADe (Rome, Italy, 2017)

G. Wurzer, W Lorenz, T. Cerovsek, B. Martens
{wurzer|lorenz}@iemar.tuwien.ac.at
www.iemar.tuwien.ac.at/
Vienna; Austria

Keywords: Differentiation, Design, Science, ProceeDings, CumInCAD.

September, 2017, Vienna

Abstract.

This paper explores the differences between `design' and `science' papers published at eCAADe conferences through use of automatic classification. The latter is conducted using a set of differentiating criteria (e.g. number of figures determines a paper to be either `design' or `science') which are calibrated with the help of a manual selection of papers from eCAADe 2015 as ground truth. Results show that we predict 83% of the papers correctly; experiments using data from eCAADe 2014 until eCAADe 2016 furthermore show the stability of our results. However, we are not so much after the development this automatic classification but rather want to characterize the two research cultures of design and science. This is achieved by taking a close look at the differentiating criteria, which can inform tools such as ProceeDings over possible future directions and adaptation needs.

A Building Database for Simulations Requiring Schemata

Talk and Proceeding: SIMaud (Toronto, Canada, 2017)

Gabriel Wurzer, Jelena Djordjic, Wolfgang E. Lorenz und Vahid Poursaeed
{wurzer|lorenz}@iemar.tuwien.ac.at
www.iemar.tuwien.ac.at/
Vienna; Austria

Keywords: Simulation; database; spatial representation; web services.

May, 2017, Vienna

Abstract.

Obtaining spatial representations of existing buildings for use in simulation is challenging: To begin with, getting permission to access submitted construction plans can take a long time. Then these might only be available in analog form, making it necessary to scan and vectorize them at the regulations office. The resulting representation might still not be adequate for simulation, requiring further extraction of relevant features and enrichment by additional information in order to fit the simulation domain. In our work, we have specifically targeted simulation types that work with schemata (e.g. occupancy, work and egress simulations). Our contribution lies in restructuring the aforementioned workflow so as to (1.) minimize time and effort spent on digitizing and to (2.) automatically derive schemata – sets of boundary polygons which (3.) can be further enriched by attributes. These steps are embedded into a web-based building database which allows uploads and queries per web interface as well as web services. The query interface furthermore includes (4.) the ability to download the schemata both in vector as well as raster form so that they can be used for both discrete and continuousspace approaches. Apart from acting as data provider, the database furthermore (5.) allows for spatial predicate functions which may be used for analysis of a space program.

flying bricks – Digitale Architektur und Raumplanung

W.E. Lorenz, G. Wurzer, S. Swoboda
www.iemar.tuwien.ac.at/

in: Journal Architektur Wettbewerbe – Das Magazin für Baukultur
Nr. 327; 4/2016

August, 2016, Vienna

Abstract.

Ziel einer Lehrveranstaltung an der TU Wien war es, das Verständnis und den Einsatz algorithmischen Denkens in der Architekturpraxis bei angehenden Architekten zu fördern.

Hier geht es zum Beitrag

Coupling Building Morphology Optimization and Energy Efficicency - A Proof of Concept

BauSIM 2016, in: Talk and Proceeding: Proceedings of the CESBP Central European Symposium on Building Physics AND BauSIM 2016; Fraunhofer IRB Verlag; Dresden (Germany); 14.09.2016 - 16.09.2016

G. Wurzer, U. Pont, W Lorenz, A. Mahdavi
www.iemar.tuwien.ac.at/
Dresden; Germany

August, 2016, Vienna

Abstract.

This contribution focuses on recent efforts towards coupling building morphology optimization and energy efficiency computation in the context of early stage hospital planning. In more detail, a Netlogo model was conceived to generate typological design variations based on a grid grammar. Each resulting design was subjected to a fitness test based on a coupled energy performance model, which is unprecedented for early stage form finding to the best of our knowledge. However, given that hospitals require a large amount of energy for operation, energy efficiency considerations should indeed be implemented as early as possible within the design process. The given paper presents methodology and early results of these efforts.

Flying Bricks - Algorithmic Design Studio

eCAADe 2016, in: Talk and Proceeding: The 34th International Conference on Education and research in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe; Real Time, (Oulu 2016) (Oulu (Finland); 22.08.2016 - 26.08.2016)

Wolfgang E. Lorenz and Gabriel Wurzer
www.iemar.tuwien.ac.at/
Oulu; Finland

Keywords: NetLogo; Digital Design; Bricks; Education.

August, 2016, Vienna

Abstract.

The design studio 'Flying Bricks' was held during the summer semester 2015. Its main objective was to redesign an existing building with the use of facing bricks algorithmically, utilizing algorithmic thinking and programming as a means for form generation. The purpose of having students express their designs in terms of code was to emphasize problem thinking over solution generation, which has several advantages but also disadvantages which we would like to share in this paper. Furthermore, we would like to show how our implementation process worked, so that others can leverage that for their own algorithmic design courses.

SpaceBook: A Case Study of Social Network Analysis in Adjacency Graphs

eCAADe 2016, in: Talk and Proceeding: The 34th International Conference on Education and research in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe; Real Time, (Oulu 2016) (Oulu (Finland); 22.08.2016 - 26.08.2016)

Gabriel Wurzer and Wolfgang E. Lorenz
www.iemar.tuwien.ac.at/
Oulu; Finland

Keywords: Adjacency Graph, Social Network Analysis.

August, 2016, Vienna

Abstract.

In this paper, we have adopted methods from Social Network Analysis in order to analyze adjacency graphs. Our intent was to uncover as much hidden structures as possible so as to improve adjacency requirements before they are used further on during the design process. To that end, we have conducted a case study using two readily available software packages (Gephi, Pajek), concluding that these could benefit from being more transparent about the underlying algorithms and more geared towards the problem domain 'adjacency analysis' when it comes to data entry and visualization. As a matter of fact, we produced an open-source prototype called SpaceBook, which customizes computation and visualization in the aforementioned spirit.

Utilizing Gradient Analysis within Interactive Genetic Algorithms

eCAADe 2016, in: Talk and Proceeding: The 34th International Conference on Education and research in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe; Real Time, (Oulu 2016) (Oulu (Finland); 22.08.2016 - 26.08.2016)

Matthias Kulcke and Wolfgang E. Lorenz
www.iemar.tuwien.ac.at/
Oulu; Finland

Keywords: Interactive Genetic Algorithm; Design Complexity; Redundancy; Spatial Analysis; Form and Geometry; Proportion.

August, 2016, Vienna

Abstract.

The paper describes and discusses the possible integration of gradient analysis, as a method and tool for architects and designers to analyze the degree of proportion-complexity of a design, into the process of designing an object utilizing interactive genetic algorithms (IGA). A VBA implementation for AutoCAD has been developed by the authors, enabling to test the usability of genetic algorithms (GA) for minimizing the angle-redundancy and length-redundancy quotient. The gradient analysis itself has been developed on the basic assumption that the complexity of an objects appearance is reduced by redundancy, which can be measured focussing on different levels of comparison; among others e. g. variety of material, colour-combinations and proportion. The latter comes under scrutiny if the method of gradient analysis is applied.

Towards Rating of Generated Typologies by Means of Adjacency Comparisons

SimAUD 2016, in: Talk and Proceeding: Proceedings of SimAUD 2016; Society for Modeling & Simulation International (SCS), (London, UK, 2016); 16.05.2016 - 18.05.2016

Gabriel Wurzer and Wolfgang E. Lorenz
www.iemar.tuwien.ac.at/
London

Keywords: Typology; Grammars, Adjacency Comparison.

May, 2016, Vienna

Abstract.

Applying different typologies to the same building yields a number of options concerning extensibility and circulation. However, it is hard to rate and compare these in order to find the most fitting one for a specific building task at hand. In this paper, we wish to work towards this goal using a showcase in which we generate and rate a large number of buildings in order to find out whether certain typologies prevail among the fittest solutions. On a technical level, we contribute (1.) a simple cell-space grammar that generates building volumes, given a preference for different axes in which form can develop - orthogonal, diagonal and vertical, (2.) a rating procedure which infers a fitness for every solution, based on (a.) the assignment of functions to parts of the generated building and computation of adjacencies between these and (b.) the extensibility of the building along its axes. Typologies are attributed in a post-step, as part of a manual analysis. Our results show a preference for the compact/central building type, as dictated by the use of adjacencies for rating a building.

Gradient-Analysis: Method and Software to Compare Different Degrees of Complexity in the Design of Architecture and Designobjects

MathMod 2015, in: Talk and Proceeding: eCAADe 2015 - 33rd Annual Conference of education and research in computer-aided architectural design in Europe, (Vienna 2015) (Vienna; 16.09.2015 - 18.09.2015)

Matthias Kulcke and Wolfgang E. Lorenz
www.iemar.tuwien.ac.at/
Vienna; Austria

Keywords: Gradient-Analysis, Design-Complexity, Redundancy, Spatial Analysis, Form and Geometry, Proportion.

September, 2015, Vienna

Abstract.

The aim of the research presented in this paper is to provide an additional method and tool for architects and designers as well as students and scholars to analyze the degree of complexity of a design. Fractal analysis (box counting) e.g. is one of these methods already used in architecture to measure the degree of complexity of an architectural design, for example of the elevation of a building. The method of semi-automated gradient-analysis described here focuses on the repetition of gradients and thus of proportion-repetition in a given design as one of several aspects of complexity reduction by redundancy.

Adjacency in hospital planning

MathMod 2015, in: Proceedings of MathMod 2015 (Vienna; 18.02.2015 - 20.02.2015)

Wolfgang E. Lorenz, Martin Bicher and Gabriel Wurzer
www.iemar.tuwien.ac.at/
Vienna; Austria

Keywords: Adjacencies, gravitational model, planning tool, hospital planning, space layout planning.

February, 2015, Vienna

Abstract.

Adjacencies stand at the beginning of a multitude of planning tasks. Especially in hospital planning they are essential for describing relationships between different organizational units – e.g. ‘close’, ‘distant’ or ‘neutral’. Mathematically, these terms map to relative weights between each pair of units in the range [-1, 1] which are put into a (symmetric) adjacency matrix. This matrix subsequently determines relative locations of individual spaces (preliminary space layout). The paper deals with the effective definition of this adjacency matrix in the context of early-stage architectural planning. In contrast to current planning practice, which looks at each adjacency relation in isolation, our approach uses a Newtonian gravitation model to propagate changes to a single relationship immediately to the whole space layout. As a result, we are able to supply architects with a design tool that accelerates the definition of adjacencies and lets them preview the preliminary space layout at the same time.

MODYPLAN: Early-Stage Hospital Simulation based on Treatment Chains

Co-Author: MathMod 2015, in: Proceedings of MathMod 2015 (Vienna; 18.02.2015 - 20.02.2015)

Gabriel Wurzer, Wolfgang E. Lorenz, Matthias Rößler, Irene Hafner, Barbara Glock, Martin Bruckner and Niki Popper
www.iemar.tuwien.ac.at/
Vienna; Austria

Keywords: Hospital planning, design tool, treatment chain, Agent-Based Simulation, space layout planning.

February, 2015, Vienna

Abstract.

Discrete-event simulation of hospitals typically specifies flow by means of a process graph through which patients are routed. While this is generally fine for models in which processes are clearly defined, e.g. smaller units such as emergency departments, it falls short of capturing the fact that a patient can in principle go from one unit to any other unit if medical procedure requires it. This problem becomes even more evident when modeling a whole hospital, at which level specifying each individual treatment through directed edges and nodes becomes unviably complex. In the past three years, we have been developing a combined hospital simulation/space design tool in which processes are defined individually by patient, as sequence of visited units imported from the Hospital Information System (treatment chains). The major advantage of this approach lies in the fact that we can now design a future space layout in which assumed capacities (staffing, equipment, required space) can be tested against the recorded patient volume, using an Agent-Based Simulation to re-enact each treatment chain. In contrast to other hospital simulations, this approach targets early stages of architectural conception, during which the actual building structure is elaborated. Using the method, we can compare and contrast different layouts during that stage, making simulation a driver for design rather than a tool for late optimization within the final floor plan.

Causality in Hospital Simulation Based on Utilization Chains

Co-Author: SimAUD 2014, in: Proceedings of SimAUD 2014 (Tampa, FL; 13.04.2014 - 16.04.2014)

Gabriel Wurzer and Wolfgang E. Lorenz
www.iemar.tuwien.ac.at/
Vienna; Austria

Keywords: Early-Stage, Hospital Planning, Visualization.

April, 2014, Vienna

Abstract.

The operation of complex buildings (e.g. airports, hospitals, industrial facilities, penitentiaries) is commonly simulated forward in time: Agents arrive and perform their prescribed tasks, utilizing resources and space as required. When trying to understand the model's state at a certain point in time, say, "why is this resource over-utilized", one must either guess or run the simulation again to determine what the cause is. Our contribution lies in the introduction of causal chains into the workflow of an agent-based simulation, so that an end user (in our case: process planner and hospital architect) can get a further insight into the intermediate simulation result at a certain point in time, without having to re-run it. .

From Quantities to Qualities in Early-Stage Hospital Simulation

Co-Author: IWISH 2013, in: Proceedings of the 2nd International Workshop on Innovative Simulation for Health Care (sic!) (Athens; 09-25-2013 - 09-27-2013)

Gabriel Wurzer and Wolfgang E. Lorenz
www.iemar.tuwien.ac.at/
Vienna; Austria

Keywords: Fuzzy Logic, Hospital Simulation, Early-Stage Design.

September, 2013, Vienna

Abstract.

Simulation in early stages of hospital planning might not live up to its full potential: Results come as quantitative (crisp) values, whereas early conception specifies requirements in a more qualitative (think: linguistic) fashion. Because of this gap, it is no wonder when planners cannot easily interpret what is computed. In our most recent work, we have addressed this issue through fuzzy analysis: Crisp simulation results are mapped back into linguistic terms, which can then be compared to the requirements set by the planning team. On the one hand, this enables us to communicate “in the right language”, on the other hand, we may use this comparison for automatically raising warnings, in case there is a mismatch between the two.

Pre-Tender Hospital Simulation Using Naive Diagrams As Models

Co-Author: IWISH 2012, in: Proceedings of the International Workshop on Innovative Simulation for Health Care 2012 (Vienna; 09-19-2012 - 09-21-2012)

Gabriel Wurzer, Wolfgang E. Lorenz and M. Pferzinger
www.iemar.tuwien.ac.at/
Vienna; Austria

Keywords: early design process, hospital planning, diagrammatic tools, pre-tender simulation.

September, 2012, Vienna

Abstract.

Hospital simulation has so-far concentrated on late phases of architectural planning, in which the design is already fully formulated and undergoes optimization. This paper moves into the exactly opposite direction - it tries to embed simulation into the earliest phase imaginable, which, interestingly, is well before any architectural planning occurs: The pre-tender work that is done by or on behalf of the client, using naïve diagrams based on interviews with the medical staff as models.

Meeting Simulation Needs of Early-Stage Design Through Agent-Based Simulation

Co-Author: The 30th International Conference on Education and research in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe; Digital Physicality | Physical Digitality, (Prague 2012)

Gabriel Wurzer, Nikolay Popov and Wolfgang E. Lorenz
www.iemar.tuwien.ac.at/
Vienna; Austria

Keywords: Agent-Based Simulation; Early-Stage Planning; NetLogo; Design Process.

September, 2012, Vienna

Abstract.

During early-stage planning, numerous design decisions are taken in an argumentative manner, based on occupation with the building site according to the different infl uencing aspects (e.g. topology, wind, visibility, circulation, activities etc.). In this context, sketches, diagrams and spreadsheets are the workhorses for elaboration. However, some of these phenomena are dynamic by nature, and are rather poorly modeled when utilizing static media. In our work, we thus show how agent-based simulation can be used to compute and visualize dynamic factors, in order to inform the decision process on a qualitative level. As a matter of fact, simulations may be used as a design tool in their own right, for analysis and objectifi ed comparison among multiple design variations.

How to Teach Architects (Computer) Programming

Co-Author: eCAADe 2011; in "Proceedings of eCAADe 2011"; T. Zupancic et al. (Hrg.)eCAADe 2011 in Ljubljana; (2011); S.51-56

G. Wurzer, S. Alacam and W.E. Lorenz
{wurzer|lorenz}@iemar.tuwien.ac.at | semosphere@gmail.com
www.iemar.tuwien.ac.at/ | www.mimarliktabilisim.itu.edu.tr/main.aspx
Vienna; Austria

October, 2011, Vienna

Abstract.

Computer programming in architecture seems to be commonplace throughout the eCAADe Community. Yet, a critical evaluation of a programming course as seen from a student’s side is still missing. During a week-long programming workshop in a fellow university, we have been assessing subjective parameters such as mood, quality of presentation and comprehensibility, comparing these to the actual topics that were covered at this instance. Our results contribute to understanding architecture students in their quest towards algorithmical thinking. We are convinced that the discussion given in this paper will help other teachers to further increase the quality of their lectures. Furthermore, the structure of our approach may serve as basis for further research into recording student behavior during programming courses.

Agents In Archeology 2011 - NetLogo Workshop

in "Agents In Archeology '11 - website";  K. Kowarik, H. Reschreiter, G. Wurzer, M. Doneus (Hrsg.) Natural History Museum Vienna; (2011); 86 pages

G. Wurzer and W.E. Lorenz
{wurzer|lorenz}@iemar.tuwien.ac.at
www.iemar.tuwien.ac.at/ 
Vienna; Austria

February, 2011, Vienna

Abstract.

Archeology has embraced the topic of agent-based modelling (ABM) as a powerful tool for understanding, formalizing and testing theories.
This workshop is aimed at students and researchers in the archaeological sciences interested in the use of agent-based simulations in archaeological research. It will be centered on practical tutorials which will provide a basic understanding if how to use the free software package NetLogo and to build simple agent-based models to address research questions  in this field. Lectures will cover theoretical background and recent research results.