Spherical Box-Counting: Combining 360° Panoramas with Fractal Analysis
Fractal and Fractional, (2023) Vol. 7, Issue 4; pp 1-20.
Matthias Kulcke undWolfgang E. Lorenz
wolfgang.lorenz (at) tuwien.ac.at
Keywords: aesthetic measure; architectural design; box-counting; fractal analysis; Gestalt quality; spherical perspective; complexity
Vienna/Hamburg; Austria/Germany; April, 2023
In this paper, a new box-counting method to achieve a highly specific topological fingerprinting of architecture in relation to the position of the observer and in the context of its surroundings is proposed. Central to this method is the use of 360-degree spherical panoramas as a basis for fractal measurement. Thus, a number of problems of the comparative analysis of the fractal dimension in the field of architecture are explicitly and implicitly addressed, first and foremost being the question of choosing image boundaries while considering adjacent vegetation, urban elements, and other visually present objects for Gestalt analysis of a specific building. Second, the problem of distance and perspective as part of the aesthetic experience based on viewer and object location were taken into account and are addressed. The implications of the use of a spherical perspective as described in this research are also highly relevant for other methods of aesthetic measures in architecture, including those implementing collaborative design processes guided by digital tools and machine learning, among others.